In this lesson, we learned about the skills when using camera. We learned about the 180 degree rule,shot reverse shot, over the shoulder shot and match on action.
180 degree rule
The 180 degrees rule is important in keeping the view focused and to avoid confusion of the action. When 2 people face each other, the line must be drawn, this is called line of action by the audience. Once the scene is established, the camera has to stay on one side of the line of action. This line would usually run straight down the middle between the 2 people like the example shown below
Joe Wright, 2010
When this line is placed, the camera can move anywhere by making sure it stays on the same side of the line once filming has begun. If the camera is switching between two faces during a conversation for example and then suddenly it cuts to the other side of the line, then it will appear that both people are facing the same direction instead of looking at each other.
Shot Reverse Shot
This is a technique used where one character is shown looking at another character and vice versa. Because the characters are shown facing the opposite direction, the viewer would say that they are looking at each other.
Ryan Howard Media, 2009
This photo comes from the film Batman: The Dark Knight. This is when Alfred and Harvey talks to each other in a party. Because they are having a conversation, shot reverse shot is used effectively to show that they are communicating with each other
Over the Shoulder
Over the shoulder is when the shot is framed from behind a person who is looking at the subject. The person facing the subject should cover about 1/3 of the frame. This shot establishes the position of each person and gets a feeling that they are looking at each other from a 3rd person’s perspective. Usually it is very common to cut the shots to alternate the views during a conversation
No author, no date
This frame is from Gladiator which came out in 2000. In this shot, we can clearly see the 2 main characters. The one on the right is Maximus. The one on the right is occupying 1/3 of the frame which is exactly what over the shoulder is to show that they are having a conversation.
Match On Action
This means that when something happens in the scene, then when there is a cut, the same piece of action must be going on. This is an example of continuity editing which is very important in helping the audience to continually understand exactly what is happening.
Example Match On Action – Jamie Dorney, 2015
This example comes from Jurassic Park 3. We can see the cup shaking as we hear a loud rumble. It gives us a close up of it, the next shot, shows not just the cups but also, but also the kid who is watching it. So it effectively follows from showing the close ups to the kids watching the cups shaking.
Storyboards are one of the most important parts before filming, without a storyboard, the actors, cameraman, lighting engineer and many more, will not know where to go, which can be difficult for them to know where go, how to film the scene, where the lighting will be set.
In this practical work, we had to create our own storyboard using the different types of shots using 180 degrees angle, shot reverse shot and over the shoulder.
Over the shoulder
Establishing shot before the line of action
Over the shoulder ( with the 180 Degree Rule )
2nd Establishing Shot
Shot reverse Shot
When we made the story board, we had to think about in which shot we would apply the 180 degree rule, the shot reverse shot and the over the shoulder shot. The first photo shows the over the shoulder shot as Kai is looking at me in a strange way that there is something mysterious about me. The main focus in this shot is Kai. Then there is the establishing shot of the location to show me and Kai. Kai seems to be feeling annoyed at me for some reason whereas I am very excited to see him. This time on the third picture, it is focused on to say that I am happy to see him, so the shot reverse shot is used for the opposite way. This time I am the focus in this frame to show my contentment. Then we go back to the 2nd establishing shot this time. It is the exact same location as last time, but with a different action. Shot Reverse shot is also used for the second time to show that I am the one being pushed away from the camera. The use of the 180 degree rule has been done effectively because we only used one side of the line of action. If we did cross the line, there would have to be an establishing shot with a new line of action. I think there was nothing wrong with the shots that we did, we followed the 180 degrees rules, we did a shot reverse shot and we did an over the shoulder shot.
Jamie Dorney,(2015), Example match On Action, Available at: https://youtu.be/f91-_AP9-I8, Accessed on 18/10/2016
Levi Wiggles Worth, 2009,Availble at: http://www.slideshare.net/leviwigglesworth/shot-reverse-shot-and-match-on-action-media, Accessed on 11/10/2016
Media College, No Date, Available at: http://www.mediacollege.com/video/shots/over-shoulder.html, Accessed on 12/10/2016
Ryan Howard Media, 2009, Available at: http://ryanmediatvdrama.blogspot.co.uk/2009/11/different-camera-shots-and-camera_10.html, Accessed on 14/10/2016
Wright, Joseph, (2010), 180 degree rule, Available at:http://joewrightmedia.blogspot.co.uk/2010/09/180-degree-rule-is-essential-in-keeping.html, Accessed on 11/10/16