In this lesson, we learned about representation and how media talks about people on how they are represented.


Paul Hamilton, 2012

Representation is to describe something or someone to call it by portrayal and description. This could be representation in magazines, news, soap operas, films and so on. It may also include representation of people, places, events etc.. The media will represent people, places and situations to us directly. For example in Eastenders, the people are representing certain groups of people. The media will rely on their audience to understand those representations and to make them accept it.

For some people, the representation of something in media could be the only contact that person has within it like:

  • Religion
  • Age
  • Gender
  • Disability
  • Class
  • Sexuality
  • Location


A stereotype  is the simplified version of a person, appearance or belief. This is a commonly public belief about a specific groups or types of individuals. The media could use stereotype because they are recognisable by the public audience.


Archetype is a very specific example of  a certain person or thing. There are 12 types of Archetypes:

  • Innocent – Unprepared for their adventure, seeks happiness where all is right in their world again
  • Explorer – Maintain independence, venture forth and discover
  • Sage
  • Hero – Main character,sent onto adventure into a new world
  • Outlaw – Break the Rules
  • Magician – crafts new worlds to fulfill their own goals
  • Everyman
  • Lover
  • Jester – Have a fun,playful time
  • Caregiver
  • Creator
  • Ruler

They all behave in a different way and all represented differently.Although these are archetypes in the ‘mythical’ way, in the media way, they tend to be quite negative.


Countertype is the complete opposite. For example you see a person one way, whereas they are the complete opposite of what the audience think. It focuses on the positive elements of the group which is traditionally represented as bad. There will be an example of a person who was thought as someone who could not sing but at the end she could.

As a starter to this, we created to examples one of which, was an Old Age Pensioner:



Michael Brown, 2013

She could be quite fragile as women are usually fragile. She is most likely to get a Zimmer frame. Their skins would be like tissue. They would have grey hair which as every other old women would have and baggy clothing.



Alamy, No Date

An old woman called Margaret, she has a bucket hat, a permanent trolley which are very common with old women. She is slightly hunched but friendly.



Daily Mail Reporter,No Date

He is a skydiver as shown on the photo or he is just the completely the opposite of what he was before becoming a skydiver

Gaze and Hegemony

There are 2 big issues in terms of representation. One of them is ‘Gaze’, the other one is ‘Hegemony’. They were created by Gramsci. There will be more detail of him below.


Mark Kingwell, 2013

Antonio Gramsci was an Italian Marxist. He was an intellectual, a journalist and a theorist who spend his last 11 years in  Mussolini’s prison. When he came out of prison, he saw his country being turned into a right-fascist state.Because of that, he went to America and saw how much the newspapers changed. They got worse and worse mainly towards the Jews. It told how every single Jews were the same and they were also stereotyped. This was clearly not true at all.

Hegemony is a word is Greek meaning Leader. Gramsci created the Hegemony Principle. This is the principle where we are still controlled by the media as people say that the media is all true, but it isn’t in fact. So that is why we are being told not to believe everything that the media says on the TV for example.



Susan Boyle First Audition – Britain’s Got Talent – ‘I Dreamed A Dream’, Chris Smith, 2010


  • Heavy
  • Frumpy
  • Older than she looks
  • Laughter which was directed at her
  • Sad
  • Deluded fool

Although on the countertype side she is someone else

  • Able to sing
  • Not a deluded fool

She is a stereotype on one hand because at the beginning,she was getting mocked because of the way she was acting towards the audience and in particular the judges. On the countertype she is not just an old lady who acted weird, but in fact,she might be old,but she can perfectly sing. The audience and judges judged her on what she looked like and the wait she was talking,but did not have any thoughts on.



Alamy, No Date, Available at:, Accessed on 18/11/2016

Bennett, Emily, 2014, Available at:, Accessed on 18/11/2016,

Brown, Michael, 2013, Available at:, Accessed on 18/11/2016

Chris Smith, 2010,Susan Boyle First Audition – Britain’s Got Talent – ‘I Dreamed A Dream’, Available at:, Accessed on 15/11/2016

Daily Mail Reporter, 2009, Available at:, Accessed on 18/11/2016

DR Robert Brooks, No Date, Available at:, Accessed on 15/11/2016

Paul Hamilton, Available at:, Accessed on 15/11/2016

TCasman, 2010, Available at:, Accessed on 18/11/2016

InFed, No Date, Available at:, Accessed on 20/11/2016

Kingdoll, Mark, 2013, Available at:, Accessed on 20/11/2016