This week, we have learnt about the stages of production in a visual sense this time. We have also used these method our our visual task for this week
For this post, there are 4 questions which are asked which links to the Pre-Production and Visuals.
How does Pre-Production apply to visuals?
You invest in camera equipments. You would buy the camera with the best quality, to film quality footage. If you buy something that is expensive but doesn’t do what you hoped for, there it would have been a waste of money and pointless to buy. Its not just the camera, but also the lighting, the tripod and other equipments. The lights that you want to use for a specific scene can be quite expensive, so you would have to buy something with a decent price
You would plan on what type of shots you would want to take, so there would be a list of the shots you want to take depending in what is happening within your story. Shot by shot, scene by scene, you must outline as well as you can what will be needed to know the images and movement for each scenes. In this way, the shot list is a form of pre-editing. When planning on storyboards you have to consider the neutral and screen direction so that people do not get confused when a character is walking from the same direction.
You would plan using a storyboard in a visual way this time. You will get to see it visually what your work looks like. It’s the central visual tool which not only reflects the film, but can even change its course. If your screenplay is your guidebook, the storyboard is your roadmap.
You would hire a crew for what you want to make. You would have a lighting person, cameraman, slating person and many others within your set.
You would also scout locations within what your storyboard really looks like and that you realistically stand in those places to get a feel of how you could the shots you want, the atmosphere of the location etc… take pictures of the those that you have visited.
Set Design is important so that you know what the scenery will be like in your project.For example, a funny romantic piece set on a tropical beach is going to feature a lot of sun, vibrant colors, ocean scenes, and swimwear, whereas a Gothic horror short will be using a lot of night shots, high contrast lighting, and graveyards. It helps decide the visual themes of the film and assists every department from wardrobe to makeup and set builders.
What are the elements that need to be considered?
Budget in the visual part of the production stage. You have to consider what you need to buy without wasting too much money. There is no need to buy something expensive if the camera does not have good quality of if you are not using it very often.
Having the right camera is of course, the most important thing when filming. Not only you have to choose a camera depending on its money, but you also have to choose the camera depending on its functions that is suitable for what you need.
Again,as well as the audio, there is a chance that there might be cables hanging loose on the floor, so that you have to be careful with it has people might trip and hurt themselves.
Planning Shoot Days
Schedules have a profound effect on budgets and resource allocation. If one location appears in different parts of the film, it’ll be far less costly to schedule all of those scenes to be shot in the same block of time.You can plan when to shoot day scenes and when to shoot night scenes. Limited availability of an actor or location can dictate when those scenes are shot – and what scenes should be shot around them.
Planning visually does take more time than the audio. You have to make sure that you plan in the limited time so that you can get on with the production, but that you are patient about it. Having a really good planning that takes a few weeks or even 2-3 months, is much better than planning something that only lasted 1 week, and that the final product
Size of Location
You have to consider the equipments that you are using, so if it is in a small rooms,you would have to be careful. So if you have a lot of equipments in a room, you have to know where each crew will be placed so that there is less chance of people falling
When planning the storyboards, you would have to take in consideration the screen and neutral direction so that people do not get confused when the audience is watching it. If for example you have someone walking on one direction and that there is a cut in that scene and that he/she walks further away, the camera direction would still be the same, otherwise, this has a risk of confusing the audience
Who are the key crew members?
Most of the time, the visuals are the director’s image. They are important for this particular reason, as they know exactly what they want. During pre-production, Directors make crucial decisions, such as selecting the right cast, crew and locations for the film. They then direct rehearsals and the performances of the actors once the film is in production.
Because they want this film produced, without them, they would find it much more difficult to actually produce what they want. They bring together and approve the whole production team. Their key responsibility is to create an environment where the talents of the cast and crew can flourish. In the Development stage, Producers are often the ones who comes up with the idea for a production. Producers secure the rights, choose the screenwriter and story editing team. In pre-production, Producers bring together the key members of the creative team. This includes the Director, Cinematographer and Production Designer and key cast members. Producers also approve locations, studio hire, the final shooting script, production schedule and budget. More time and money spent in pre-production can reduce time and money being wasted when the production gets underway.
They are the one who creates the image within what the director wants. They are in charge of creating the dream picture. The set designers would put together a prop breakdown using the script to list the actions props, animals, vehicles, dressing props and any graphic items such as ( letters, newspapers, posters, books etc,) that are necessary for the production.
They are the chiefs over camera and light crews on a film television or other live action pieces and is responsible for making artistic and technical related to the image.
He/she is of course, the most important crew member in the visual part. They are the ones who do all the filming. they create the picture that everyone wants to see with all the different types of shots within what has been drawn from the storyboards.
They are the 2nd most important members as they are the ones who set the atmosphere with its lighting skills. They are the one who makes the area dark, bright of a mix of both, to make people have a feeling of what is happening. They are also the ones who determine a person’s feelings, from using the different quality of lights to the directions, to its source and to its colour. 3 Point lighting would also be used in most cases.
Slater is also an important part of the visual crew members. Without the, it would be impossible to then sync the sound and visuals together. Once the person has slated, that is when the filming can then take place.
They are the ones who design the costume for the specific characters within what they look like from the storyboard.They work closely with the Production Designer to make sure the costumes fit in with their overall vision and work with the chosen lighting and camera angles.During pre-production, Costume Designers break down scripts scene by scene to work out how many characters are involved and what costumes are required. They then develop costume plots for each character. Costume Designerswould carry out research into the costume styles, designs and construction methods suitable for the time period, using resources such as libraries, museums and of course, Internet.
How do they link to the other stages of production?
- They actually link to when editing arrives. So when the filming is done, the editor would move the screens around to create the story that was planned within the pre-production. It would be the one who creates the visuals.
- The Director is able to create a visual representation outside of the storyboards, to create something special.
- If there are any problems with the dialogue recorded on-set, the editor can fix this problem, by saying that they need a new audio which would then be dubbed over the old one so that the sound will hopefully be clearer.
Production is the stage of when the shooting actually begins. The sound is recorded, the script is being played played and this time, it is captured on camera.
How does Production Apply to Visuals?
Production is very important in terms of the visuals, and the different reasons as to why it applies to visuals will be explained just below:
The Shooting Itself
FilmiBeat, No Date
During the production, the thing that everyone does is shooting, which takes place in a location because without shooting, then of course, there is no final product. They include both audio and visuals whilst filming.
Locations in visuals are the most important thing depending on what you based it on from the storyboards. It gives people the image of what the location is like when watching it During the filming, these will be where the locations are shot at.
Camera and Equipments
The camera is very important when filming to capture the things that you need within the production. Different equipments will be used for different situations. These equipments this time, would be used for the visuals only and not the audio.
The cast are the group of actors who are part of the film. They act based on what the script is telling them to do, and they are doing it in a realistic way.
What are the elements that need to be considered?
Lighting is a very important element that needs to be considered during he production. This is what gives the mood of different characters or the atmosphere, so that the audience when they watch it, know what that person feels like or what the room feels like if you were in there. Although there might be problems. The light might reflect, and create a blurring image during the filming, so it would have to be researched during the Pre-production stage in order to avoid that kind of problem. The position of the lighting would be placed within where it has been said to placed in the planning process.
For the cast to act in a really realistic way, they would have to rehearse to get their lines absolutely perfect. Not only the cast, but the crew as well, would rehearse their own way. The cameraman would rehearse its camera movements so that he/she is ready when the time comes.
Framing is crucial. If you don’t frame properly, then when you watch it, you will clearly not be able to see the main characters in the shot, and the story would not make sense at all. It should be the number 1 element to take into consideration. Everything that is meant to be in the frame, has to be in the frame, full stop, to capture the key action within the scene that is happening.
Understanding their equipments
In order to film properly, or to use the lighting correctly, they firstly have to know how to use. Without knowing, then you will find it much more difficult to use the equipment and you might film wrongly, or not light the right thing.
Checking shots at the end
Once the filming is done, or mostly done, before changing location, you must check all the footage to make sure that there are no problems that have been discovered on the video and to make sure that it links to the storyboard that was planned weeks before. If there are problems that have been identified, then it must be re-taken to the best of their ability, so that it can then be better for the editor to assemble the scenes,with the eye-catching scenes.
How does Production apply to the other stages of production?
- Editing – This is done during the post production. The footage that are needed to be edited, will all come from the Production stage. This is when the visual story comes into place. Sound is also part of the editing software, but because this week is visual, it will only apply to visual.
- Storyboard – This is right back from the pre-production stage. The storyboard helps position the scenes in the right place so that thee story that is told makes perfect sense. So when editing, the editor will try to follow the storyboard to help with where to put the scenes where.
- Planning from pre-production – If the planning in the pre-production goes, then it will make it easier for the crew to then get on with the filming without struggling as to what they habe to film where, how long it must take etc… They will then jsut be able to follow the planning that was done, and apply it into the filming.
This is when the editing, colour grading, adding effects and many other things comes into place. If there were problems with the colours whilst filming, then the editor would be able to fix it.
How does Post production Apply to Visual?
Editing is of course part of the visual process. You assemble the visual footage in its right place to tell the story which has been planned.
Telling the story for what the audience wants to see, is crucially important so that people can follow it easily, without getting confused too much.
Effects and Transitions
Effects and transitions in visuals are quite important. It gives a bit more fluidity when watching the film and makes it a bit more interesting. Without transitions, the scenes would be cut suddenly too often and will not look too fluid
What elements need to be considered?
Again, this is the same principle as for the audio of last week, when editing you must take time in order to make it more effective to not rush it and mis scenes which might be important.
Colour grading or colour corrections is important when setting the mood for scenes or to correct the colour if there was a problem whilst filming. This is an important step to take into consideration when editing, otherwise, if there are no colour grading, the mood will not be set and there will be no mood within the scene.
Re-checking the footage
As an editor, not only those who were in the production has to check their filming, but the editor as well would have to check and select the footage that is important for the editing. If there are some however that are needed to be re-taken, then they must be re-taken in order for the footage to be perfect.
It has to match the storyboard
Editing whilst matching the storyboard is important so that the editor, director and others working on the editing, do not get confused with where which scenes goes at which part of the story.
How does Post Production link to the other stages?
- Editing by following the storyboard links to how well the planning was done. If the planning is done well, then there should be no confusion whilst in the post-production process
- The filming done in the Production Process will affect the post production in terms of the scenes needed, if there any that needs to be re-done.
- Colour grading within the production footage links to it so that the mood can be set
This task is nearly similar to the audio task which we had last week, although this time, it is a visual task, so instead of creating a script, we are creating a storyboard. The video had to last between 30 seconds to 1 minute. For our one, we decided to create a video where someone is listening to music but that the person is unaware of how loud it becomes, switches music, and people behind her, as she walks, are dancing.
These are the criterias of what we should try and achieve:
- ‘A variety of shots must be used: Establishing Shot, Close Up, Extreme Close Up, Medium Shot and Cutaway
- We have to preserve continuity of direction
- We have to incorporate camera movement
- We have to have a minimum of 6 shots
- The running time has to be between 30 seconds and 1 minute
- We have to create a storyboard for the scene
- We must consider the elements needed to build eg, framing and composition, lighting and camera movement
- We have to use what we have learnt so far this year as well as what we have learnt this term
- This will feed into the next stage the following day of production
- We will decide the approach in which we undertake the task and we can use a variety of methods to gain our visuals ( specific equipments such as a glidecam, LED lights and reflectors, locations and the crew needed for the task)
Finally, we will edit it using Avid.’
Planning and Documentation
Planning and documentation is very important in the media industry, because without it, there would clearly be no production at all. During the pre-production process, you would definitely have to complete a few documentations in order to go onto the next stages which is production and post-production. The other reason, is to benefit from preventing certain issues
Meeting and Hiring Crew – by doing that, you will be able to know who you need for what specific job, and you would have to choose people who will do the job correctly, not just any random person.
Locations – This is important to fill in as when you are scouting an area, you have to know what it looks like so that it can help you with any interference this could have in the production
Budgets – Budget is important, so that you limit yourself to what you want to buy, and only buy what is good for your production without wasting too much
Contact and details – By having contacts and details, you will be able to call companies for example when looking at locations, you can call them or send them an email to ask if any locations or other things are available to use or not.
Time Planning – Rushing your planning will make the overall project feel very rushed and will by far, not be successful. So if you want your project to be the best of your abilities, your planning has to be well prepared so that you feel confident about it
Scheduling Shoot Days – Scheduling at what time you will shoot things, is a very crucial part of the documentation that you have to fill in. Without it, you will waste a lot of time in filming one scene, whereas you might still have another 15 scenes to do after that, especially that it has to be done in limited time if you don’t want to have problems with the budget later on.
Health & Safety – Filling a health and safety sheet is very important, so that you think about everyone else’s safety and not just your own.
The documentation that I have used were: The Location Recce sheet, the health and safety sheet, the equipment sheet and of course, the storyboards.
This time particularly, instead of being with my original group which were Lydia, Kai, Kyle and Sara, I had to work with other people so that I can gain more confidence with working of people who I don’t talk to as much. For this week, in my group there was, Reece, Zoe and Carla.
Our story is particular for some reason. Our production, is about someone who walks in the college, playing the music, but not realising that it was really loud, so people stare at her in a weird way, because they can hear the music. Then when Carla passes next to me, she realised that it was not even plugged in, then walks off again.
Shot 1 – This is an establishing shot in which Carla walks into college.
Shot 2 – This shot is an extreme close up shot of her eyes
Shot 3 – Following straight away from shot 2, the camera will zoom out, and the headphones will be put in slow motion during the post production. This will be a medium close up as it follows from the the last shot.
Shot 4 – This is where there is a tracking shot of Carla walking into college. This is a point of view shot this time.
Shot 5 – This is also the shot where she walks in the college, but from a different angle
Shot 6 – This one is a long shot of her walking in the street (although its one of the big corridors, which will be explained later as to why it has been changed).
( For the next 2 shots, there has been slight changes to what we wanted to film, so it will be explained within the shots so that you know)
Shot 7 – This is another long shot of her walking further across the corridor.
( In this shot, we thought of doing an angle shot of Reece where he looks up to Carla as she walks passed him. He is looking a slight weird way as he hears that the sound is too loud)
Shot 8 – This is another long shot where Carla stops and realises that her headphones are not plugged in.
( This shot is partly correct, although we added an extra actor in that scene, which is me, where I look up to her in a weird way as well, not only when I find out that she put the music too loud, but also that her headphones were not even plugged in)
Shot 9 – This is a over the shoulder shot of Carla looking at her phone, tapping on the play button, but she does not realise that it was that loud.
We decided to fill in a Location Recce sheet to check if the area we used is safe enough and suitable for our production. We had to see what the problems could be when filming, the kind of props we would need within the location and many other things. The details of this can be seen below
Health & Safety
This is the health and safety sheet in which we had to see what the possible hazards might be when filming. This is important so that there is no one that gets hurt and that there are as little problems as possible. (Sorry for the quality of the photo, although at the bottom right of photo, where you can the Y’s this is where there could be potential hazards within our locations and our project.)
Schedule + Equipment
Having an equipment’s list and schedule was really important for our production. We had to create a list of all the equipments so there before we go onto the Production part, we actually know what to use. Having a schedule is also important so that we can use the time wisely without taking too much. By having a structured plan, we will find it easier to follow it, when we are filming what, when the editing will happen, to make our lives much easier.
How it helped me identify me problems and solutions?
By planning in advance and filling out documentations, this helped preventing problems that might occur whilst we are filming or any problems that could occur during the editing process. One of the main issues of our production was that light could be too bright and could blind people, so we reduced its brightness. Another problem could have been that the camera might not be screwed onto the tripod properly which could cause the camera to fall and break. So luckily, we have avoided that, and we did tight the camera within the tripod as much as possible before shooting.
The 28th of February 2017, was the day we filmed based on our planning within the Pre-Production process.
The production linked to the visual elements will then be used for the Post Production which is the editing part. Within our production, we had to stick to our schedules and also to follow the other things within the documentation we have wrote. In some ways, it is very similar to the audio task of last week, but this week is mainly based on the visual side of things.
We started filming at around 9.50am. We had an 1 hour to film in the morning, so that we can then review our footage, and if we had to re-take some of the scenes, then we would have a bit of time in the afternoon, although for our project, we did not need to re-take it.
For the post production, I thought of editing it using my own music. So for that I had to do blur it in order to make sure that no one knows what the music was, so that I have more freedom to choose my music. I also used sound effects to enhance the video a bit more, especially when walking.
Problems we encountered and solutions
One of the problems we have encountered was from the camera. When we tried to film using the LED light, we found out that it was too bright. This could have been from the exposure of the camera being too bright, so our solution was to adjust it so that it is clear enough whilst filming.
The other problem was when there were people walking past whilst we filmed. So our solution was to wait until it was clear for us to film, without too much interruption.
Analysis of Project
The story that my group has done is someone walking into college, stopping at one point to play the music and put her headphones on. She then walks passed Reece, without realising that her music was really loud, so he looks kind of annoyed as she walks pass him. She then walks passed me, stopping for a few seconds and then unplugs her headphones to shut the music completely, but then puts them back on which the music is then heard at the end credits. I thought of adding sound effects to it so that it can be felt a bit more realistic when watching it
There are keyframes which will be added (although some was done at home as I struggled to move the keyframes on Avid as well as the blur). When the music starts, I thought of fading in the music so that it starts quiet to when she puts on her headphones which will then be loud. Then the music stops suddenly, the headphones are unplugged, so that I don’t hear the music at all, and what she walks pass me although you can’t see it, during the end-credits, the music continues.
Blur + Keyframe
During the editing, I thought of blurring the phone, especially on the song choice as I wanted to add my song. I struggled at first to blur it because I never knew how to use it. I really did struggle with the blur, because I was not able to track it. So I had to blur it in a way that the song was not visible as well as the picture. Although when watching it, you definitely can’t see the song choice.
The actually blurring that you see on the video is from using Da Vinci Resolve,as I had to finish my edit, and that I was struggling with the keyframes, I also thought of adding a few things as well as the blur itself, which unfortunately, did not work too well. The keyframes for this video was important especially before Carla puts her headphones on because I want to wait for the right moment when she puts on the headphones to be louder so that people know that the music is loud but that Carla does not realise it is.
For the sound effects, I decided to just use the walking because there are no other sound effects which I thought of during the production as most of it would be masked by the music, which was in this case, quite an important part of the video.
I decided to use Freesound again because this is a website which I thourougly enjoy using to find particular sound effects. The 2 sound effects I found were: Walking on a carpet and Hitmount, which is the normal walking. The Hitmount sound was used at the beginning, when Carla walks into the college. The Walking on the Carpet one is used when I find out that she unplugged her earphones.
What went well?
The things that went well were:
- Although our planning took time, which is a good thing actually, we were able to come up with something that wasn’t too complicated hopefully. The final product follows the storyboard well although there are 1 or 2 scenes which I switched around.
- We were able to use a variety of shots from the criterias that we were given. We used long shot, extreme close up, point of view shot, an angle shot to explain the story in many different ways.
- During the editing, I was able to recreate something that would hopefully makes sense to people with the music. The way that I faded the audio in from quiet to loud, the way that I cut the music suddenly, to show that Carla unplugged it purposely. I thought the music, the sound effects and most of the footage, worked well together to create something unique.
What can I improve on?
- First of all on the post production part, the first thing I should improve on is when blurring things. This was the second time that I was struggling with it, and I was still not able to find a way to fix that problem, so hopefully in the future, I will then be able to do it.
- The next thing to improve on could be the story itself, although we did find a story that was understandable in some ways, I am sure that it could have been just a bit better, so I think next time we should spend more a bit more time on finding something much easier.
- Another thing which I can improve on which I only found out after watching the video a few times, was the actual music which did not sound as if it came from the headphones, but it sounded more as if it was only used as background music. So I think the next time, I could use Audacity to help me with that next time, which apparently, is very effective at changing the sound effect to make it sound like you want.
What did I learn from the task?
- Planning and Documentation – Now that I have done the same type of planning like the audio task, I feel much more confident in following those steps whenever I do projects with people. I will know that I will have to fill in documentations before the production.
- Planning Patience – Planning is very important and be beneficial for the production, especially if it isn’t rushed. You must take your time to plan so that it will make people’s lives much easier
I feel that the final product was quite good. Even though some of the footage didn’t look that well, I thought that with the music and the sound effects, this can be forgotten in some ways as people would be focus on what is happening and not all the small details if some people are not as critical.Although, I know there is still room for some more improvement for future projects. Below is the screenshot of the whole edit, although it is on DaVinci Resolve as I had to complete some of the things which I was not able to do on Avid. At the same time, I wanted to add a few things at the end which I thought was easier on DaVinci. Here is the whole timeline of Avid and DaVinci:
Here is the video which you have all been waiting for:
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